B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj <p><strong>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ)</strong> is an international Referred and Peer Reviewed Online and print Journal with E-ISSN: 2582-3302 and P-ISSN: 2582-564X published by B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan for the enhancement of research and extension in Agriculture and allied discipline. </p> <p>AEXTJ is a Open Access Online Journal that publishes full-length papers, reviews and short communications exploring and to promote diverse and integrated areas of Agriculture, Horticulture, Agricultural Engineering, Animal husbandry, Veterinary, Home science, food technology, fishery, Social science and Economics. AEXTJ is steered by a distinguished Board of Editors. To maintain a high-quality journal, manuscripts that appear in the AEXTJ Articles section have been subjected to a rigorous review process.</p> <p>Country: India, Yemen, Srilanka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sudan and opens to the world.</p> <p><strong>Subject Category: </strong></p> <p>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) covers topic of all agriculture branches. The main topic includes but not limited to:</p> <p><strong>AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, VETERINARY, HOME SCIENCE, FOOD TECHNOLOGY, FISHERY, SOCIAL SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS</strong></p> <h3><strong> AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES</strong></h3> <ul> <li>Plant Science</li> <li>Agricultural Economics</li> <li>Basic biology concepts</li> <li>Management of the Environment</li> <li>Agricultural Technology</li> <li>Basic Horticulture</li> <li>Irrigation and water management</li> <li>Soil Science</li> <li>Animal Science</li> <li>Agricultural Chemistry</li> <li>Sustainable Natural Resource Utilization</li> <li>Agricultural Management Practices</li> <li>Natural Resources</li> <li>Food System</li> </ul> <h3>CROP PRODUCTION</h3> <ul> <li>Cereals or Basic Grains: Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Triticale, Corn, Sorghum, Millet, Quinoa and Amaranth</li> <li>Pulse Crops: Peas (all types), field beans, faba beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and chickpeas.</li> <li>Vegetable crops or Olericulture: Crops utilized fresh or whole</li> <li>Tree Nut crops: Hazlenuts. walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans</li> <li>Sugar crops: sugarcane. sugar beets, sorghum</li> <li>Oilseeds: Canola, Rapeseed, Flax, Sunflowers, Corn and Hempseed</li> <li>Hay and Silage (Forage crop) Production</li> <li>Tree Fruit crops: apples, oranges, stone fruit</li> <li>Berry crops: strawberries, blueberries, raspberries</li> <li>Potatoes varieties and production.</li> </ul> <h3>LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION</h3> <ul> <li>Animal husbandry</li> <li>Bovine</li> <li>Camel</li> <li>Pigs</li> <li>Goat</li> <li>Bees</li> <li>Exotic Species</li> <li>Ranch</li> <li>Equine</li> <li>Yak</li> <li>Sheep</li> <li>Poultry</li> <li>Dogs</li> <li>Chicken Growth</li> </ul> <h3>AQUACULTURE</h3> <ul> <li>Fish Farm</li> <li>Freshwater Prawn Farm</li> <li>Shrimp Farm</li> </ul> <p><strong>CROP PRODUCTION:</strong> <strong>GRAINS; LEGUMES; FRUITS; VEGETABLES; FLOWERS; COTTON</strong></p> <ul> <li>Crop protection</li> <li>Crop breeding and genetics</li> <li>Crop nutrition, irrigation</li> <li>Crop physiology</li> <li>Pests and diseases, weeds, invasive species</li> <li>Precision agriculture</li> <li>Sustainable agriculture</li> <li>Conservation agriculture</li> <li>Organic agriculture</li> <li>Ecological agriculture</li> </ul> <p><strong>ANIMAL PRODUCTION: LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Animal breeding</li> <li>Animal nutrition<strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>SOIL AND WATER</strong></p> <ul> <li>Soil physics</li> <li>Soil chemistry</li> <li>Soil microbiology</li> <li>Soil and water quality</li> <li>Irrigation and water use efficiency</li> </ul> <p><strong>IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS</strong></p> <ul> <li>Environmental influences on production and products</li> <li>Impact of changing environments</li> </ul> <p><strong>RURAL MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT</strong></p> <ul> <li>Trade</li> <li>Livelihoods</li> <li>Rural communities and aid</li> </ul> <p><strong>AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Machinery</li> <li>Remote sensing</li> <li>Geographical Information Systems<strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT HEALTH AND SAFETY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Post-harvest</li> <li>Animal and plant inspection</li> <li>Product freshness</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong><u>JOURNAL PARTICULARS</u></strong></p> <p><strong><u> </u></strong></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Title</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Frequency</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Quarterly</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>E- ISSN</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2582-3302</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>P-ISSN</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2582-564X</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>DOI</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>https://doi.org/10.22377/aextj.v03i01</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Publisher</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>Mr. Rahul Nahata</strong>, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemuch Road, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Chief Editor</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Dr. M.A. Naidu</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Starting Year</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2017</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Subject</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Agriculture subjects</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Language</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>English Language</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Publication Format</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Online and Print [Both]</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Email Id</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><a href="mailto:agriculturalextensionjournal@gmail.com">agriculturalextensionjournal@gmail.com</a> ,editor@brnsspublicationhub.org</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Mobile No.</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>+91-7049737901</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Website</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>www.aextj.com</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Address</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan, BRNSS PUBLICATION HUB, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemuch Road, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> BRNSS Publication Hub en-US B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) 2582-564X <p>This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License [CC BY-NC 4.0], which requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.</p> Exploring Potential of Information and Communication Technology in Vocational and Technical Education in College of Education http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/381 <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) holds immense potential in revolutionizing vocational and technical education. With the rapid advancement of technology, integrating ICT tools and methods into these fields can greatly enhance learning experiences. ICT can bridge geographical gaps, enabling learners to access quality education regardless of their location. As industries evolve, the integration of ICT prepares students for the demands of the modern workforce, fostering innovation, adaptability, and competitiveness. Vocational and technical education faces significant challenges in developing and maintaining high quality. The use of ICT has the potential to enhance the quality of vocational and technical education. To fully realize the potential of ICT, proper infrastructure, connectivity, and digital literacy must be addressed. The objective of incorporating ICT in vocational and technical education is to provide students with a dynamic, relevant, and accessible learning experience that equips them with the skills and knowledge needed for success in the modern workforce. It is important to note that the successful integration of ICT in vocational and technical education requires, training for teachers, and the use of ICT should be aligned with the specific needs and context of the vocational and technical education sector. The way forward for ICT in vocational and technical education involves several key considerations and actions; by focusing on these areas, vocational and technical education can harness the full potential of ICT to enhance learning outcomes, improve access, and better prepare students for the demands of the workforce.</p> Danmaigoro Aliyu Copyright (c) 2023 Danmaigoro Aliyu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.381 Relationship between Cotton Production and Virtual Water in India http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/382 <p>Water is an essential natural resource to live on the earth. We have about 2/3rd of the water on the planet. Still, there is a scarcity of water. It is due to the uneven distribution of water on the earth in many places because of the over-exploitation and the withdrawal of water for personal and agricultural use. This study is conducted to know the impact of the yield on virtual water use in cotton production. The secondary cotton production data was collected from the INDIASTAT. The water requirement for the cotton is calculated by the CROPWAT 8.0 model (software of the FAO). The regression analysis is done to calculate the result. The result is calculated by a statistical package in the social sciences. The result of the study shows that if the farm’s yield increases, the virtual water per unit will decrease. The implications of this paper are that to reduce the water requirement for cotton production, India needs to increase the production capacity of cotton, resulting in a decrease in the water requirement. The result of this study can be implied anywhere to get a reduction in the virtual water use in any type of farm product.</p> Shoaib Ansari Copyright (c) 2023 Shoaib Ansari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.382 Evaluation of the Accumulation of Ethidium, Malathion, Trifluralin, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in the Muscle of Anzali Wetland Fish http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/383 <p>This study aimed to investigate the accumulation and comparison of ethidium, malathion, trifluralin, P, P-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (P-DDT), and P, P-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (P-DDE) in the tissue of Common carp, Common Pike, Crucian carp, Tench, and catfish of the central, western, and eastern wetland of Anzali wetland and comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO). The level of organochlorine pesticides in fish meat was measured by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector and organophosphate toxin with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. P, P-DDE, P, P, DDT, ethidium, and trifluralin did not show significant differences at the stations west, east, and central (P &gt; 0.05). Ethidium, malathion, and trifluralin most were amounts in fish. Ethidium and malathion have no significant differences (P &gt; 0.05). Ethidium, malathion, trifluralin, P, P-DDE, and P, P DDT decreased significantly compared to the WHO (P &gt; 0.05). The results showed that according to the standards set by the WHO, the accumulation of these toxins in the fish of the Enrolled wetland does not pose a danger to consumers.</p> Mina Seifzadeh Copyright (c) 2023 Mina Seifzadeh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.383 Analysis of Fish Value Chain in Kebbi State, Nigeria http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/384 <p>The study was conducted to analyze the fish value chain in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through a field survey using a semi-structured questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, marketing margin, ordinary least square, multiple regression analysis, and net farm income. Both simple random and purposive sampling methods were used to select the respondents from different segments of the entire value chain. Forty fish farmers were randomly selected, and 30 traders and 20 processors were used across the state, thus, giving a total number of 90 sample size for the study. Results revealed that the main fish value chain actors are input suppliers, farmers, processors, and traders.</p> Gona Ayuba Copyright (c) 2023 Gona Ayuba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.384 Sustainable Development and Environment of Biomass from Agriculture Residues http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/385 <p>This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment, and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings, and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of biomass sources energy. Furthermore, this study clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of biomass energy source and describes the objectives, approach, and scope of the theme. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.</p> Abdeen Mustafa Omer Copyright (c) 2023 Abdeen Mustafa Omer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.385 Constraints Faced by the Protected Growers of Himachal Pradesh http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/386 <p>The present study was conducted to analyze the constraints faced by protected vegetable growers of Himachal Pradesh. A sample of 240 respondents was chosen randomly using multistage random sampling from the mid-hill zone of Himachal Pradesh. The problems were analyzed using garret ranking and Chi-square test. Garret ranks showed that the main problems were lack of storage facility, inability to reap benefits of subsidies, and unavailability of plant protection chemicals and plant material. In Chi-square, the significant problems were inability to reap benefits of subsidies (7.39), lack of awareness about seed and plant treatments (6.28), unavailability of technical knowhow (6.02), and lack of storage facility (6.24). The precautionary steps to be taken care of during protected cultivation of crops include use of well-decomposed FYM, less frequent opening and closing of doors, soil treatment, and use of virus-free seeds. A proper knowhow and awareness among farmers can help in achieving sustainability through protected cultivation of crops.</p> Anshuman Klate Copyright (c) 2023 Anshuman Klate https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 7 03 10.22377/aextj.v7i03.386