B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj <p><strong>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ)</strong> is an international Referred and Peer Reviewed Online and print Journal with E-ISSN: 2582-3302 and P-ISSN: 2582-564X published by B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan for the enhancement of research and extension in Agriculture and allied discipline. </p> <p>AEXTJ is a Open Access Online Journal that publishes full-length papers, reviews and short communications exploring and to promote diverse and integrated areas of Agriculture, Horticulture, Agricultural Engineering, Animal husbandry, Veterinary, Home science, food technology, fishery, Social science and Economics. AEXTJ is steered by a distinguished Board of Editors. To maintain a high-quality journal, manuscripts that appear in the AEXTJ Articles section have been subjected to a rigorous review process.</p> <p>Country: India, Yemen, Srilanka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sudan and opens to the world.</p> <p><strong>Subject Category: </strong></p> <p>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) covers topic of all agriculture branches. The main topic includes but not limited to:</p> <p><strong>AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, VETERINARY, HOME SCIENCE, FOOD TECHNOLOGY, FISHERY, SOCIAL SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS</strong></p> <h3><strong> AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES</strong></h3> <ul> <li>Plant Science</li> <li>Agricultural Economics</li> <li>Basic biology concepts</li> <li>Management of the Environment</li> <li>Agricultural Technology</li> <li>Basic Horticulture</li> <li>Irrigation and water management</li> <li>Soil Science</li> <li>Animal Science</li> <li>Agricultural Chemistry</li> <li>Sustainable Natural Resource Utilization</li> <li>Agricultural Management Practices</li> <li>Natural Resources</li> <li>Food System</li> </ul> <h3>CROP PRODUCTION</h3> <ul> <li>Cereals or Basic Grains: Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Triticale, Corn, Sorghum, Millet, Quinoa and Amaranth</li> <li>Pulse Crops: Peas (all types), field beans, faba beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and chickpeas.</li> <li>Vegetable crops or Olericulture: Crops utilized fresh or whole</li> <li>Tree Nut crops: Hazlenuts. walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans</li> <li>Sugar crops: sugarcane. sugar beets, sorghum</li> <li>Oilseeds: Canola, Rapeseed, Flax, Sunflowers, Corn and Hempseed</li> <li>Hay and Silage (Forage crop) Production</li> <li>Tree Fruit crops: apples, oranges, stone fruit</li> <li>Berry crops: strawberries, blueberries, raspberries</li> <li>Potatoes varieties and production.</li> </ul> <h3>LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION</h3> <ul> <li>Animal husbandry</li> <li>Bovine</li> <li>Camel</li> <li>Pigs</li> <li>Goat</li> <li>Bees</li> <li>Exotic Species</li> <li>Ranch</li> <li>Equine</li> <li>Yak</li> <li>Sheep</li> <li>Poultry</li> <li>Dogs</li> <li>Chicken Growth</li> </ul> <h3>AQUACULTURE</h3> <ul> <li>Fish Farm</li> <li>Freshwater Prawn Farm</li> <li>Shrimp Farm</li> </ul> <p><strong>CROP PRODUCTION:</strong> <strong>GRAINS; LEGUMES; FRUITS; VEGETABLES; FLOWERS; COTTON</strong></p> <ul> <li>Crop protection</li> <li>Crop breeding and genetics</li> <li>Crop nutrition, irrigation</li> <li>Crop physiology</li> <li>Pests and diseases, weeds, invasive species</li> <li>Precision agriculture</li> <li>Sustainable agriculture</li> <li>Conservation agriculture</li> <li>Organic agriculture</li> <li>Ecological agriculture</li> </ul> <p><strong>ANIMAL PRODUCTION: LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Animal breeding</li> <li>Animal nutrition<strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>SOIL AND WATER</strong></p> <ul> <li>Soil physics</li> <li>Soil chemistry</li> <li>Soil microbiology</li> <li>Soil and water quality</li> <li>Irrigation and water use efficiency</li> </ul> <p><strong>IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS</strong></p> <ul> <li>Environmental influences on production and products</li> <li>Impact of changing environments</li> </ul> <p><strong>RURAL MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT</strong></p> <ul> <li>Trade</li> <li>Livelihoods</li> <li>Rural communities and aid</li> </ul> <p><strong>AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Machinery</li> <li>Remote sensing</li> <li>Geographical Information Systems<strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT HEALTH AND SAFETY</strong></p> <ul> <li>Post-harvest</li> <li>Animal and plant inspection</li> <li>Product freshness</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong><u>JOURNAL PARTICULARS</u></strong></p> <p><strong><u> </u></strong></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Title</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Frequency</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Quarterly</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>E- ISSN</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2582-3302</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>P-ISSN</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2582-564X</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>DOI</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>https://doi.org/10.22377/aextj.v03i01</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Publisher</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><strong>Mr. Rahul Nahata</strong>, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemuch Road, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Chief Editor</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Dr. M.A. Naidu</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Starting Year</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>2017</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Subject</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Agriculture subjects</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Language</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>English Language</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Publication Format</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>Online and Print [Both]</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Email Id</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p><a href="mailto:agriculturalextensionjournal@gmail.com">agriculturalextensionjournal@gmail.com</a> ,editor@brnsspublicationhub.org</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Mobile No.</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>+91-7049737901</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Website</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>www.aextj.com</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="225"> <p>Address</p> </td> <td width="414"> <p>B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan, BRNSS PUBLICATION HUB, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemuch Road, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> BRNSS Publication Hub en-US B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan Agricultural Extension Journal (AEXTJ) 2582-564X <p>This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License [CC BY-NC 4.0], which requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.</p> Preparation of activated carbon from pyrolytic conversion of musa paradisiaca http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/294 <p>Activated carbon is a porous carbonaceous material with high adsorption capacity that can be used as adsorbent material for purification of liquids and gases. In this research work, Pyrolytic conversion of plantain stems into activated carbon was carried out. The study was aim at comparing two chemical activating agents to determine the most suitable one for the preparation of activated carbon from plantain stems. The activating agents used were H2SO4 and HNO3. Waste plantain stems were carbonized at 500–750°C and activated at 600°C to produce activated carbon. The effect of various activating agents on percentage yield, ash content (AC), percentage burn-off, bulk density, surface area determination, moisture content determination, fixed carbon, methylene blue number, loss on ignition, pore volume, and iodine number was characterized. From the results, it was observed that H2SO4 at activation temperature of 600°C gave the highest value of bulk density with increasing impregnation ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, with the value ranging from 0.2223 to 0.2561 g/cm3 followed by HNO3 ranging from 0.2225 to 0.2359 g/cm3. The values of percentage yield show that H2SO4 activation was observed to have 77% as the overall best higher than HNO3 with 76% which shows that the activation temperature at 600°C does not favor the impregnation ratio of HNO3 but rather favors H2SO4, and with HNO3 low percentage yield resulted in high percentage burn-off at 33–29%. It was observed that the AC of each of the impregnation ratios of different activating agents was high because it ranged from 33.6% to 39.4%. Similarly, the iodine number obtained showed that iodine adsorption of activated carbon prepared with H2SO4 with activation temperature at 600°C is the best because the micropores content on the surface of activated carbon was the highest at the impregnated ratio of 1337.1–1269.1 g/kg while that of HNO3 had the lowest value though chemical activation values were better than thermal valves which shows that H2SO4 as activating agent was found to be the best for the preparation of activated carbon from plantain stems.</p> Ololade Moses Olatunji Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 6 1 10.22377/aextj.v6i1.294 Drought effects on animal husbandry in Iran: Situations, problems, and approaches http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/295 <p>Decreasing amount of rainfall in the past autumn and winter caused deficiency in pastures and shortage and unavailability and very high prices of fodder and forage in most regions of Iran. This unfavorable phenomenon forced many nomadic and rural people that breeding livestock and especially goat and sheep herds to selling their animals even reproductive livestock under normal prices of them in market to middlemen and before maturing them completely and with low weights and killing them in livestock slaughterhouses in Iran. This imposed many economic damages to them. Slaughtering reproductive livestock will cause reducing in milk and dairy production and increasing their various products prices in future. Drought is a spreading phenomenon, and it has caused a lot of damages in different parts of the country in recent years. The driest conditions in 53 years have brought chronic mismanagement of water resources in Iran. According to Iran’s meteorological agency, the country’s average temperature has increased by 2C since the 1960s, rainfall has decreased 20% in the last 20 years and October 2020 to June 2021 was the driest period in 53 years. Environmental problems in general and water problems in Iran, in particular, are multi-faceted issues. Iran’s water resources have been depleted by a lack of rain, the building of hydro-electric dams, and farming of water-intensive products such as rice, wheat and sugar cane. Farmers hit by water shortages are fleeing their villages to live in precarious settlements on the outskirts of cities. Some villagers just do not have water to drink. They have to go and get water from small puddles on the ground. type of doing this research is mainly qualitative that observations, experiences, and field visits of author are main sources for gathering information. in these regards, author in article state various aspects of drought and its effects on nomadic and rural people that breeding livestock and especially goat and sheep herds in Iran. in the end of article present solutions and approaches for confronting to drought and its unfavorable effects on these nomadic and rural people in Iran.</p> Farhood Golmohammadi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 6 1 10.22377/aextj.v6i1.295 On Evaluating the Effect of Soil Treatment and Fertilizer on the Cultivation of Grain Crops http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/296 <p>The article gives the results of studies of the effect of soil and fertilizer treatment on the productivity of winter wheat in the Ganja-Gazakh zone of Azerbaijan. The positive effect of fertilizers on plants of winter wheat is manifested only in well-cultivated soils with a reaction of the environment close to neutral. At the same time it is proved that between the intensity of the application of mineral fertilizers and the productivity of grain crops around the world, a close direct dependence is established. Consequently, the highest yield of grain here was obtained in the variant of dung 10t/ha + N90P90K60 57.1 c/ha, an increase of 24.3 c/ha or 74.1%, where the yield increase by 40–50% is due to the application of fertilizers.</p> Prof. Z. H. Aliyev Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 6 1 10.22377/aextj.v6i1.296 Scientific Rationale for the Development of low-intensity Irrigation Systems in Azerbaijan http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/297 <p>The results of the study revealed that the mismatch intensity rain rate of water absorption into the soil formation of a surface relief and soil erosion, uneven and shallow soaking imperfection open irrigation system at a superficial irrigation, the need for different irrigation methods in the growing and not growing periods, low coefficient land utilization, high cost of irrigation, and other features are, to a certain extent in conflict with the requirements of watering cultivated with techniques for/of crops in an area at the deep groundwater.</p> Z. H. Rans Aliyev Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 6 1 10.22377/aextj.v6i1.297 Pastia Characteristics and Improved Use Efficiency http://aextj.com/index.php/aextj/article/view/298 <p>The article deals with the elimination of existing problems in pastures (overgrazing, erosion of biodiversity, decrease in soil fertility and soil erosion, decrease in the content of organic matter in the soil and CO2 emissions, salinization and alkalization of the soil, etc.) and their multifunctional features that have special meaning: (1) Pastures are a supplier of many agricultural products. (2) Protects soil fertility and biodiversity. (3) Protects the soil from wind and water erosion. (4) Has a good potential for storing carbon dioxide in the soil compared to arable land and forests. (5) Has a positive effect on the restoration of groundwater levels. (6) Has a protective effect on maintaining water quality and positively affects water infiltration. (7) Represents an esthetically pleasing landscape and provides excellent opportunities for recreation, open space, and existing problems. (8) Dormant – vegetative and to some extent seed propagation of native species. (9) Soil softening – germination of seeds of annual, perennial grasses, and shrubs. (10) Slopes – conversion of arable land into permanent pastures. (11) Inclusion of temporary pastures in crop rotation. (12) Increase feed production – support the production of meat, milk, wool, etc. Considering that pastures support the rural economy and are a source of livelihood for the population, restoration and protection of pastures (rest, surface mitigation, surface and capital improvement, creation of temporary pastures, conversion of arable land on slopes to pastures, etc.) are relevant and of particular importance. The Action Plan of the “State Program approved by Presidential Decree No. 222 of May 22, 2004” and the “Strategic Roadmap for the Production and Processing of Agricultural Products in the Republic of Azerbaijan” approved by Decree No. 1138 of December 6, 2016 As a result, this is a contribution to the Sustainable Food Program security in the country. Based on the foregoing, taking into account the relevance and particular importance of the issue, we decided to determine the efficiency of use (increase in productivity and quality, etc.) by conducting scientific and experimental research on measures to improve unproductive pastures in Guba district, and in 2021 on the pastures of the Guba region, scientific and experimental studies were carried out. As a result of experimental studies on the experimental field (Control), the average yield was 26.6 c/ha, green mass or 6.8 c/ha of dry grass, (without fertilizers) sowing grass seeds, and other options per hectare. More and more diverse. Compared with the (control) variant and sowing grass seeds + in the H60P60K40 variant, this indicator averaged 39.9 sen/ha of green mass, or 13.3 sen/ha, or 15.0% more than green mass, or 10.0 centners of dry grass, or 3.2 sen/ha, or 14.7% more, turning into dry grass. In each of the tested options, the quality of the produced feed (green mass or dry grass, nutritional value, and digestibility) was higher than in the control variant compared to the control variant. It is characterized by a large accumulation of vitamins and minerals that are important for the animal’s body (increased productivity per hectare, improved feed quality, and digestibility). This resulted in lower labor costs, reduced feed consumption per unit of production, and<br>increased economic efficiency.</p> Prof. Zakir Aliyev Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 6 1 10.22377/aextj.v6i1.298